10095 - The Extended Granin Family: Structure, Function, and Biomedical Implications

Course Directors

Alessandro Bartolomucci, Ph.D., University of Minnesota
Reiner Fischer-Colbrie, Ph.D., Innsbruck Medical Univ., Austria
Y. Peng Loh, Ph.D., National Institutes of Health
Sushil K. Mahata, Ph.D., University of California, San Diego
Roberta Possenti, Ph.D., Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
Stephen Salton, M.D., Ph.D., Mount Sinai School of Medicine


The chromogranins, secretogranins and additional related proteins that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors. This course reviews the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides, and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. It also reviews recent data further indicating that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers.


AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™

Opus Medicus designates this Internet enduring material for a maximum of 3.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Credits

In addition to AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™, Opus Medicus designates this course for Specialty Board MOC Program Credits:

3.0 ABIM MOC Points1

Accreditation Statement

Opus Medicus is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Tuition Fees

Course: Free
Credits: $72.00

Course Dates

Last Review Date: 15-Oct-2017
Expiration Date: 14-Oct-2020


After completing this course, participants will understand:

1. The structure of the granin family of proteins.

2. The critical functions of granins and granin-derived proteins.

3. Role of granins in glucose metabolism

4. Role of granins in energy expenditure.

5. Role of granins in gastrointestinal function.

6. Role of granins in regulating hormones, prohormones, and neurotransmitters.

7. Potential application of granin evaluation as biomarkers of human disease.

8. Future exploitation of granins as targets of therapy.


1. Structural comparison of granins

2. Sorting and granulogenesis

3. Granin-derived peptides and their mechanisms of action in endocrine and neuroendocrine systems

4. Genetic insights into granin function

5. Granins as disease biomarkers

6. Future Directions: The search for receptors of granin-derived peptides

American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) / Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Competencies

☑  Patient Care (PC)
☑  Medical Knowledge (MK)

Financial Relationship Disclosure and Content Attestation

The authors attest that they have no financial relationships with commercial entities producing healthcare related products and services. Dr. Steven R. Tahan, Education Committee Chair, attests that commercial entities with which he has relationships do not produce healthcare related products or services relevant to the content of this course. No other person who has provided content for or who can influence the content of this course has disclosed financial relationships with commercial entities that produce health care-related products or services relevant to the course content.

There has been no commercial support for this course.

Supported Computer Hardware and Software Configurations2

Supported client computing platforms include:

A broadband Internet connection is required (e.g., cable, DSL, and 3G or 4G wireless). The course presentation is automatically scaled to the size of the display, from 800x480 pixels (minimum supported) to 1920x1200 pixels. On some smart phones, viewing courses may be tedious.

Supported browsers include:

Javascript, cookies, and popups must be enabled on your browser (which is the default configuration for most browsers).

1. Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 3.0 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Program, in addition to AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of AMA PRA Category 1 credits claimed for the activity. Immediately upon course completion, Opus Medicus will submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit.

2. The course may also be viewable on other client computing platforms that comply with Internet standards. If you experience technical problems that prevent you from viewing the course, we will promptly issue a full refund upon request.